Why is there no leftist movement in Italy of the size and attractive force of Podemos, Linke and Syriza, and how has the 5 Star Movement come to occupy this space? It is a puzzle to put your mind to before the referendum on Dec. 4. The “Italian case” of past decades (the most politicized society in Europe with the most fractured, political and social left) has disappeared entirely and it presents many other anomalies and peculiarities.
The turning point occurred in 1989 when “real socialism” shattered, the “turning point” of the Communist Party. Then, a violent diaspora opened among those who intended to liquidate the history and heritage of the left and those who wanted to try to renew it.
The “caravan” of Achille Occhetto did not have ideal anchors, but a generic opening to the new with a simultaneous distancing from the European Socialists (Craxi’s shadow).
The “No” front split within the Communist Party: one group of promoters of a new party (Sergio Garavini, Armando Cossutta, Lucio Magri and others) and another group of those who believed it was possible to stay in the “vortex” (Pietro Ingrao, Aldo Tortorella, Giuseppe Chiarante and Fausto Bertinotti for a period).